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🧐😖🤮 Pharmacologic class: Benzodiazepine
🧐😖🤮 Therapeutic class: Anxiolytic
🧐😖🤮 Controlled substance schedule IV
🧐😖🤮 Pregnancy risk category D
🧐😖🤮 Unknown. Thought to depress CNS at limbic system and disrupt neurotransmission in reticular activating system.
🧐😖🤮 Injection: 2 mg/ml, 4 mg/ml
🧐😖🤮 Solution (concentrated): 2 mg/ml
🧐😖🤮 Tablets: 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg
Indications and dosages
🧐😖🤮 ➣ Anxiety
🧐😖🤮 Adults: 2 to 3 mg P.O. daily in two or three divided doses. Maximum dosage is 10 mg daily.
🧐😖🤮 ➣ Insomnia
🧐😖🤮 Adults: 2 to 4 mg P.O. at bedtime
🧐😖🤮 ➣ Premedication before surgery (as antianxiety agent, sedative-hypnotic, or amnestic)
🧐😖🤮 Adults: 0.05 mg/kg (not to exceed 4 mg) deep I.M. injection at least 2 hours before surgery, or 0.044 mg/kg (not to exceed 2 mg) I.V. 15 to 20 minutes before surgery. For greater amnestic effect, give up to 0.05 mg/kg (not to exceed 4 mg) I.V. 15 to 20 minutes before surgery.
🧐😖🤮 ➣ Status epilepticus
🧐😖🤮 Adults: 4 mg I.V. given slowly (no faster than 2 mg/minute). If seizures continue or recur after 10 to 15 minutes, repeat dose. If seizure control isn't established after second dose, other measures should be used. Don't exceed 8 mg in 12 hours.
🧐😖🤮 • Elderly or debilitated patients
🧐😖🤮 • Acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome
🧐😖🤮 • Hypersensitivity to drug, other benzodiazepines, polyethylene or propylene glycol, or benzyl alcohol
🧐😖🤮 • Acute angle-closure glaucoma
🧐😖🤮 • Coma or CNS depression
🧐😖🤮 • Hepatic or renal failure
🧐😖🤮 Use cautiously in:
🧐😖🤮 • hepatic or renal impairment
🧐😖🤮 • history of suicide attempt, drug abuse, depressive disorder, or psychosis
🧐😖🤮 • elderly patients
🧐😖🤮 • pregnant or breastfeeding patients.
🧐😖🤮 • For I.V. use, dilute with equal volume of compatible diluent, such as normal saline solution or dextrose 5% in water. Keep resuscitation equipment and oxygen at hand.
🧐😖🤮 ☞ Give each 2 mg of I.V. dose slowly, over 2 to 5 minutes. Don't exceed rate of 2 mg/minute.
🧐😖🤮 • Don't give parenteral form to children younger than age 18.
🧐😖🤮 CNS: amnesia, agitation, ataxia, depression, disorientation, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, incoordination, asthenia
🧐😖🤮 CV (with too rapid I.V. administration): hypotension, bradycardia, tachycardia, apnea, cardiac arrest, cardiovascular collapse
🧐😖🤮 EENT: blurred vision, diplopia, nystagmus
🧐😖🤮 GI: nausea, abdominal discomfort
🧐😖🤮 Other: increased or decreased appetite
🧐😖🤮 Drug-drug.CNS depressants (including antidepressants, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, sedative-hypnotics): additive CNS depression
🧐😖🤮 Hormonal contraceptives: increased lorazepam clearance
🧐😖🤮 Drug-herbs.Chamomile, hops, kava, skullcap, valerian: increased CNS depression
🧐😖🤮 Drug-behaviors.Alcohol use: increased CNS depression
🧐😖🤮 Smoking: increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of lorazepam
🧐😖🤮 ☞ During I.V. administration, monitor ECG and cardiovascular and respiratory status.
🧐😖🤮 • Monitor vital signs closely.
🧐😖🤮 • Evaluate for amnesia.
🧐😖🤮 • Watch closely for CNS depression. Institute safety precautions as needed to prevent injury.
🧐😖🤮 ☞ Monitor for signs and symptoms of overdose (such as confusion, hypotension, coma, and labored breathing).
🧐😖🤮 • Assess liver function tests and CBC.
🧐😖🤮 • Tell patient and family about drug's possible CNS effects. Recommend appropriate safety precautions.
🧐😖🤮 • Explain that with long-term use, drug must be discontinued slowly (typically over 8 to 12 weeks).
🧐😖🤮 • Instruct patient to avoid alcohol, because it increases drowsiness and other CNS effects.
🧐😖🤮 • Caution patient to avoid smoking, because it speeds drug breakdown in body.
🧐😖🤮 • Advise female patient to inform prescriber if she is pregnant or breastfeeding.
🧐😖🤮 • As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.