The mean waist circumference for male was 87.6 [+ or -] 10.7 cm and female was 86.4 [+ or -] 11.8 cm, which reveals that majority of female had abdominal or truncal obesity
"Probably the biggest genetic risk factor is called 'metabolic syndrome.' This is a combination of high triglycerides, low HDL, truncal obesity
[a large waistline], hypertension, and insulin : resistance or prediabetes.
"This association may result from the mechanical effects of truncal obesity
and/or the metabolic effects of adipose tissue," wrote Dr.
This correlates with a study done by Channaraya et al (2002),  which showed truncal obesity
based on waist circumference was 69%.
At the age of 10 months, she showed frontal bossing, doll face, acromicria, and truncal obesity
In her first visit, we found several symptoms such as truncal obesity
, moon facies, purple steria on her upper and lower limbs and abdomen, excessive edema, echimotic patches of limbs with suppurative lesions (due to superimposed bacterial infections), and wet skin (figures 1 and 2).
On physical examination, height was 185, weight was 95 kg, BMI was 27.8 kg/m2, axillary and pubic hair were present, the penis was small, and he had truncal obesity
. Karyotype was 47,XXY Follicle-stimulating hormone was 61 mIU/mL (1.27-19.26), LH 25 mIU/mL (1.24-8.62), total testosterone 0.24 ng/mL (2.8-8), and free testosterone was 3.15 pg/mL (57-178).
No truncal obesity
, striae, or skin changes were noticeable.
Caption: Figure 1: The clinical photos showed Kyphoscoliosis and truncal obesity
(a) and poor developed genitalia (b) in a 25-year-old male with Prada-Willi Syndrome.
For postpubertal females in whom polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or other hyperandrogenic states are suspected, hormonal testing is indicated in the presence of the clinical signs of infrequent menses and infertility, hirsutism, truncal obesity
, androgenetic alopecia, polycystic ovaries, or clitoromegaly.
Given the confounding relationship between truncal obesity
and glucose intolerance, there was no significant correlation between nocturnal or daytime sleep duration and hip/waist ratio with BMI.
In addition, 323(80%) participants had central and 264(65.3%) had truncal obesity
. About 121(30%) subjects were obese and 250(61.9%) were overweight.